Jumat, 27 April 2012

Complex Sentence and Modals

Alhamdulillahi rabbil alamin, the writer express his gratitude tio the God almight that has guided and merced , so that the God could finish her writing in this makalah. Salawat and salam attended to the great prophet Muhammad SAW, it would not be possible to produce a work of this kind without assistance and guidance from many people. Therefore, the writer would like to express her sincere thanks to them particularly to the following individuals, they are :
            Firstly, my beloved parents, who always give the financial, support,their love and pray for the writer and also  my sister and my brothers who had given me support and for all my family.
            Secondly, the writer said thank for all my friends about their support and suggesstion because their suggesstion will make perfect my makalah.
            Finally, for all people who have given suggesstion and ideas. The writer should also express her thanks.

                                                                                               Kamanre, 14 January 2012


            Makalah ini disahkan pada ……/……/…… oleh guru mata pelajaran yang bersangkutan.

Guru Mata Pelajaran


A.      Sentences
According Linguistics, sentence (sentence) is a set of words that have at least one subject and one predicate, and implies a perfect (complete). A sentence begins with a capital letter and end with a.
While the division of sentences in the English language are divided to:
• Simple Sentence (Simple Sentences)
• Compound Sentence (Sentence Compound)
• Complex Sentence (Word Perfect)
• Complex-Compound Sentence
Menurut Ilmu Bahasa, sentence (kalimat) adalah sekumpulan kata yang mempunyai paling sedikit satu subjek dan satu predikat serta mengandung pengertian yang sempurna (lengkap). Sebuah kalimat diawali dengan huruf besar dan diakhiri dengan titik.
Sementara pembagian kalimat didalam bahasa Inggris terbagi kepada :
• Simple Sentence (Kalimat Sederhana)
• Compound Sentence (Kalimat Majemuk)
• Complex Sentence (Kalimat Sempurna)
• Complex-Compound Sentence

B.     The division sentence
• Simple Sentence (Simple Sentences) is a sentence that contains only a single verbs (words keja) which reflects the presence of one main idea.
• Compound Sentence (Sentence Compound) is a sentence that contains two or more main verb that describes two or more ideas that are connected by conjunctions (conjunctions).
• Complex Sentence (Word Perfect) is a sentence that contains a main clause (sentence stem) and one or more subordinate clauses associated with the word
• Simple Sentence (Kalimat Sederhana) yaitu kalimat yang hanya mengandung satu verb (kata kerja) utama yang mencerminkan adanya satu gagasan saja.
• Compound Sentence (Kalimat Majemuk) yaitu kalimat yang mengandung dua verb utama atau lebih yang menggambarkan 2 gagasan atau lebih yang disambungkan dengan kata sambung (conjunctions).
• Complex Sentence (Kalimat Sempurna) yaitu kalimat yang mengandung 1 main clause (kalimat induk) dan 1 atau lebih anak kalimat yang dihubungkan dengan Kata Ganti Penghubung (Relative Pronouns)

C.      Complex Sentence
Complex sentence is a sentence with an independent clause and at least one dependent clause (subordinating clause). Subordinator such as because, since, after, although, who, when, etc.
Kalimat kompleks adalah kalimat dengan klausa independen dan setidaknya satu klausa terikat (klausa subordinatif). Dengan subordinator seperti, sejak, setelah, meskipun, yang, kapan, dll.

D.     Creating a Complex Sentence

There are three kinds of sentences to make complex sentences are:

1.     Complex Sentences with adverb clauses
Adverb clauses here is to provide information about time, reason, manner, and so on.
Klausa adverbia di sini adalah untuk memberikan informasi tentang waktu, alasan, cara, dan seterusnya.
a. Time: the telephone rang When We sat down to eat dinner.
b. Reason:
My boyfriend and I went to disco Because he wanted to dance.
c. Manner: I Followed the instructions exactly as written They were the resource persons.

The use of complex punctuation in this sentence depends on
the clauses. When placed at the beginning of a sentence adverb clauses the clauses separated by a given sign komma. However, if placed at the end of the sentence adverb clauses are not separated then (does not require punctuation).

Penggunaan tanda baca yang kompleks dalam kalimat ini tergantung pada klausanya.Ketika ditempatkan di awal kalimat klausa adverbia dipisahkan oleh tanda koma yang diberikan. Namun, jika ditempatkan di akhir kalimat klausa adverbia tidak dipisahkan maka (tidak memerlukan tanda baca).

- Because Jill was studying for final exams, She did not answer her phone all day.
- Jill did not answer her phone all day
because she was studying for final exams.

*Exception: for while or whereas need komma punctuation.
Pengecualian: untuk sementara perlu meenggunakan tanda baca koma.

- One of my roommates studies day and night, whereas the other two like to party.
- My sister is an excellent cook, while I can not even fry an egg

2.     Complex sentence with Adjective clauses
Adjective clauses: describing the information about the noun or pronoun.
Klausa kata sifat: menggambarkan informasi tentang kata benda atau kata ganti.
- Students have an average
who do not have to take the final exam.
- July 4th is the day Pls Celebrate Their American independence from Great Britain.

*Do not put commas around an adjective clause is necessary to identify its antecedents.
Jangan meletakkan koma sekitar sebuah klausa kata sifat yang diperlukan untuk mengidentifikasi pendahulunya.

ho Students work more than twelve hours a week Should not take more than three classes.

Replace the comma before and after the adjective clause that it is not necessary to identify the introduction, but only provides additional information about it.
Ganti koma sebelum dan setelah klausa kata sifat yang tidak perlu untuk mengidentifikasi pendahuluan, tetapi hanya menyediakan informasi tambahan tentang hal itu.

Michael, WHO works twenty hours a week, Should not take more than three classes.

3.     Complex sentences with Noun clauses

Noun clauses: describing a person's information such as what think or say.
Noun clauses begin with subordinating one of these words: that, whether, if (informal), and question words Such as who, which, what, where, Pls, why, how, how much, how Often, how soon, and so on .
Klausa nomina : menggambarkan informasi seseorang seperti apa yang pikirkan atau katakan.
Klausa nomina dimulai dengan menundukkan salah satu dari kata-kata: bahwa, apakah jika (informal), dan kata-kata pertanyaan Seperti siapa, yang, apa, dimana, Pls, mengapa, bagaimana, berapa banyak, berapa sering, berapa lama, dan seterusnya

- Everyone knows That global warming is a serious problem
- World leaders have been meeting to discuss what actions Governments Should take.

A.     Modals

Modal verbs are common auxiliary verbs in Germanic languages including English that indicate modality. Modality is the grammaticalized expression of the subjective attitudes and opinions of the speaker including possibility, probability, necessity, obligation, permissibility, ability, desire, and contingency
Kata kerja modals adalah kata bantu umum dalam bahasa Jerman termasuk bahasa Inggris yang menunjukkan modalitas. Modalitas adalah ekspresi tata bahasa dari sikap subjektif dan pendapat dari pembicara termasuk kemungkinan, probabilitas, kebutuhan, kewajiban, kebolehan, kemampuan, keinginan, dan kontingensi.

B.     The Modal Verbs in English

The nine modals verbs in English are:
a.       Can
b.      Could
c.       May
d.      Might
e.       Must
f.       Shall
g.      Should
h.      Will
i.        would
Sembilan modals verba dalam bahasa Inggris adalah:

a. dapat
b. bisa
c. mungkin
d. mungkin
e. harus
f. harus
g. harus
h. akan
i. akan

C.      Position of Modal Verbs

Modal verbs always appear in the first position at the beginning of the verb phrase in English. Unlike other verbs, modal verbs do not show tense or number. The eight possible verb phrase combinations that contain modal verbs in English are:
Modal verba selalu tampil di posisi pertama pada awal frase verba dalam bahasa Inggris.Tidak seperti kata kerja lainnya, kata kerja modal tidak menunjukkan tegang atau nomor.Delapan kombinasi frase verba kemungkinan yang mengandung verba modal dalam bahasa Inggris adalah:
a.       modal verb + base form = will eat
b.      modal verb + be + present participle = will be eating
c.       modal verb + have + past participle = will have eaten
d.      modal verb + be + past participle = will be eaten
e.       modal verb + have + been + present participle = will have been eating
f.       modal verb + have + been + past participle = will have been eaten
g.      modal + be + being + past participle = will be being eaten
h.      modal verb + have + been + being + past participle = will have been being eaten

D.     Definitions

Modal verbs are difficult to define in any language because of the wide range of pragmatic uses of modal verbs by native speakers. Some of the more common definitions (in no particular order) of the modal verbs in English are:
a.       can – ability, permission, possibility, request
b.      could – ability, permission, possibility, request, suggestion
c.       may – permission, probability, request
d.      might – possibility, probability, suggestion
e.       must – deduction, necessity, obligation, prohibition
f.       shall – decision, future, offer, question, suggestion
g.      should – advice, necessity, prediction, recommendation
h.      will – decision, future, intention, offer, prediction, promise, suggestion
i.        would – conditional, habit, invitation, permission, preference, request, question, suggestion

Kata kerja modal sulit untuk mendefinisikan dalam bahasa karena berbagai kegunaan pragmatis verba modal oleh penutur asli. Beberapa definisi yang lebih umum (tidak dalam urutan tertentu) dari kata kerja modal dalam bahasa Inggris adalah:

a.   dapat - kemampuan, izin, kemungkinan, permintaan
b.   bisa - kemampuan, izin, kemungkinan, permintaan, saran
c.   mungkin - izin, probabilitas, permintaan
d.   mungkin - kemungkinan, probabilitas, saran
e.   harus - deduksi, keharusan, kewajiban, larangan
f.    akan - keputusan, masa depan, menawarkan, pertanyaan, saran
g.   harus - saran, kebutuhan, prediksi, rekomendasi
h.   akan - keputusan, masa depan, niat, menawarkan, prediksi, janji, saran
i.    akan - bersyarat, kebiasaan, undangan, izin, preferensi, permintaan, pertanyaan,

1) can

ability to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be able to)
I can speak English.
permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to)
Can I go to the cinema?
Can you wait a moment, please?
I can lend you my car till tomorrow.
Can we visit Grandma at the weekend?
It can get very hot in Arizona.

2) could

ability to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be able to)
I could speak English.
permission to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be allowed to)
I could go to the cinema.
polite question *
Could I go to the cinema, please?
polite request *
Could you wait a moment, please?
polite offer *
I could lend you my car till tomorrow.
polite suggestion *
Could we visit Grandma at the weekend?
possibility *
It could get very hot in Montana.

3) may

It may rain today.
permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to)
May I go to the cinema?
polite suggestion
May I help you?

4) might

possibility (less possible than may) *
It might rain today.
hesitant offer *
Might I help you?

5) must

force, necessity
I must go to the supermarket today.
You must be tired.
advice, recommendation
You must see the new film with Brad Pitt.

6) must not/may not

You mustn't work on dad's computer.
You may not work on dad's computer.

7) need not

not necessary
I needn't go to the supermarket, we're going to the restaurant tonight.

8) ought to

You ought to drive carefully in bad weather.
You ought to switch off the light when you leave the room.

9) shall

instead of will in the 1st person
Shall I carry your bag?

10) should

You should drive carefully in bad weather.
You should switch off the light when you leave the room.

11) will

wish, request, demand, order (less polite than would)
Will you please shut the door?
prediction, assumption
I think it will rain on Friday.
I will stop smoking.
spontaneous decision
Can somebody drive me to the station? - I will.
She's strange, she'll sit for hours without talking.

12) would

wish, request (more polite than will)
Would you shut the door, please?
habits in the past
Sometimes he would bring me some flowers.
* no past forms - future forms

1.  Pauline and Bruno have a big argument every summer over where they should spend their summer vacation.
a)     Simple Sentence
b)     Compound Sentence
c)      Complex Sentence
d)     Compound-Complex Sentence
2.  Pauline loves to go to the beach and spend her days sunbathing.
a)     Simple Sentence
b)     Compound Sentence
c)      Complex Sentence
d)      Compound-Complex Sentence
3.  Bruno, on the other hand, likes the view that he gets from the log cabin up in the mountains, and he enjoys hiking in the forest.
a)     Simple Sentence
b)     Compound Sentence
c)      Complex Sentence
d)     Compound-Complex Sentence
4.  Pauline says there is nothing relaxing about chopping wood, swatting mosquitoes, and cooking over a woodstove.
a)     Simple Sentence
b)     Compound Sentence
c)       Complex Sentence
d)     Compound-Complex Sentence
5.  Bruno dislikes sitting on the beach; he always gets a nasty sunburn.
a)     Simple Sentence
b)     Compound Sentence
c)      Complex Sentence
d)     Compound-Complex Sentence
6.  Bruno tends to get bored sitting on the beach, watching the waves, getting sand in his swimsuit, and reading detective novels for a week.
a)     Simple Sentence
b)     Compound Sentence
c)      Complex Sentence
d)     Compound-Complex Sentence
7.  This year, after a lengthy, noisy debate, they decided to take separate vacations.
a)     Simple Sentence
b)     Compound Sentence
c)      Complex Sentence
d)     Compound-Complex Sentence
8.  Bruno went to the White Mountains of New Hampshire, and Pauline went to Cape Cod.
a)     Simple Sentence
b)     Compound Sentence
c)      Complex Sentence
d)     Compound-Complex Sentence
9.  Although they are 250 miles apart, they keep in constant contact on the internet.
a)     Simple Sentence
b)     Compound Sentence
c)      Complex Sentence
d)     Compound-Complex Sentence
10.  Bruno took the desktop computer that he uses at work, and Pauline sits on the beach with her laptop computer, which she connects to the internet with a cellular phone.
a)     Simple Sentence
b)     Compound Sentence
c)      Complex Sentence
d)     Compound-Complex Sentence
  1. ___ you speak any foreign languages?
    a. May
    b. Can
    c. Have
  2. Liz ___ get tired of her job. It is so boring.
    a. has to
    b. must
    c. should 
  3. Where's Nick? He ___ be in his office.
    a. might
    b. mustn't
    c. is to 
  4. Take an umbrella. It ___ rain later.
    a. has to
    b. need
    c. might 
  5. Jack ___ go to hospital yesterday.
    a. must
    b. had to
    c. need 
  6. You look tired. You ___ go to bed.
    a. should
    b. ought
    c. are to 
  7. You ___ do it. I've already done it.
    a. must not
    b. need not
    c. ought not 
  8. ___ it be true?
    a. Must
    b. May
    c. Can 
  9. ___ we stay or leave?
    a. Will
    b. Would
    c. Shall 
  10. Jane was so tired. She ___ have worked days and nights.
    a. should
    b. must
    c. need 

1.      C
2.      A
3.      D
4.      C
6.      A
7.      A
8.      B
9.      C
10.  D
1.      B
2.      B
3.      A
4.      C
5.      B
6.      A
7.      B
8.      C
9.      C
10.  B

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