Senin, 02 April 2012

BAHASA INGGRIS

Contoh Paragraf Deskriptif (Bhs. Inggris X)


 
 
 
 
Tidak jarang para pelajar sekolah ataupun peserta kursus Bahasa Inggris mendapatkan tugas untuk membuat contoh paragraf dalam Bahasa Inggris. Untuk menghindari kesalahan penulisan dalam membuat paragraf dalam Bahasa Inggris, kita harus memperhatikan grammar serta structure dan memperkaya penguasaan sentence sehingga paragraf dalam Bahasa Inggris yang kita buat akan runut, tertaur, serta mudah dimengerti.
 
Berikut ini adalah contoh paragraf Bahasa Inggris:
 
" Tooth sensitivity is hard to ignore but easy to treat. Almost half of the population suffers from tooth sensitivity and many of them accept it as normal. Tooth sensitivity or sometimes called dentin hypersensitivity or root sensitivity. If hot, cold, sweet or very acidic foods and drinks, or breathing in cold air, makes your teeth sensitive or painful then you have sensitive teeth.  Tooth sensitivity is usually caused by dentin on root areas exposed due to receded gums or periodontal disease. Receded gum are very common and up to four fifths of people have gum recession by the time they are 65 years old "

Rumus 16 Tenses (Bhs. Inggris X)

RUMUS 16 TENSES
Kata Kerja
Kata Kerja adalah bagian inti dari Tenses Bahasa Inggris. Kata kerja atau Verb pada rumus-rumus Tenses di blog ini, Kata kerja atau Verb ini sering saya singkat V saja. Jadi kalau V+ing artinya sama dengan Verb+ing, sering juga saya tulis sebagai “Ving” saja agar mudah.
Kata kerja dalam bahasa Inggris ada banyak bentuknya: V1, V2, V3, Ving.
Kata Kerja bentuk 1 atau saya singkat V1, yaitu kata kerja dasar, seperti: drink, go, write, read, participate, learn, study, dan sebagainya. Ada kata kerja bentuk ke 2, sering saya singkat V2. Kata kerja bentuk 3 ya V3. Serta Kata Kerja bentuk ING atau saya singkat Ving. Bagaimana cara menggunakan bentuk-bentuk kata kerja tersebut? Ada di masing-masing pelajaran Tenses Bahasa Inggris.
Perubahan Bentuk Kata Kerja
Perubahan bentuk Kata Kerja bentuk 1 (V1) ke bentuk kedua (V2) dan bentuk ke 3 (V2) ada yang beraturan (ada rumusnya) dan ada juga yang tidak beraturan (tidak ada rumusnya). Wah memamg inilah yang membuat bahasa Inggris ini menjadi rumit bagi kita orang Indonesia, haha.
Kata Kerja Beraturan (Regular Verb):
Artinya ya mempunyai keteraturan bentuknya, ada rumusnya misalnya ditambah “D” atau “ED” seperti: live – lived – lived, play, played, played.
Walaupun ada aturannya tetapi aturan perubahan tersebut masih ada beberapa. Daftar kata kerja beraturan ini pun panjang sekali. Saya sarankan Anda mempunyai buku Grammar Bahasa Inggris walaupun yang kecil dan sederhana, biasanya ada di sana. Memang Anda mau menulsinya disini satu per satu?.
Kata Kerja TIDAK Beraturan (Irregular Verb):
Misalnya kata kerja “drink” berturut-turut untuk bentuk ke 1 sampai 3: drink-drank-drunk. Satu contoh lain lagi: break-broke-broken
Masih ingat V1, V2, V3 dan Ving? Jangan lupa apa itu artinya ya, karena akan sering dipergunakan dalam setiap  tenses bahasa inggris
1. Present Tense (Waktu Sekarang)
a. Simple Present Tense (Waktu Sekarang Sederhana)
Rumus :
+ } S + V1 + O/C
- } S + Do/does + not + V1 + O/C
? } Do/does + S + V1 + O/C
Example :
+ } Sisca Reads book everyday
- } Sisca does not Read book everyday
? } does Sisca Read book everyday
Yes He does / No He does not (doesn’t)
For I, We, You, They = do
He, She, It = Does
Contoh kalimat :
(+) She is a new people here.
(+) He plays football every morning
(-) She isn’t a new people here.
(-) He does not playing football every morning.
(?) Is she a new people here?
(?) How playing football every morning?
b. Present Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sekarang)
Menerangkan suatu perbuatan yabg sedang berlangsungpada waktu sekarang.
Rumus :
+ } S + Be + V1 + ing + O/C            >>           + } They are playing badmintoon now
- } S + Be + not + V1 + ing + O/C >>           – } They are not playing badmintoon now
? } Be + S + V1 + ing + O/C            >>           ? } Are they palaying badmintoon now ?
Yes They are / no they are not
For I = am
They, we, you = are
He, She, It = Is
Contoh dalam kalimat :
(+) He is playing badminton now
(-) He isn’t playing badminton now.
(?) Is he playing badminton now.
c. Present Perfect Tense (Waktu Sempurna Sekarang)
Rumus :
subject+auxiliary verb+main verb
Contoh :
(+) you have eaten mine.
(-) she has not been to Rome
(?) have you finished?
d. Present Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sempurna Sekarang)
Rumus :


(+): S + have/has + been + Ving
(-): S + have/has + not + been + Ving
(?): Have/has + S + been + Ving
Contoh :
(+) She has been going to Malang since evening.
(+) We have been riding a horse for three days
(-) She hasn’t been going to Malang since evening.
(-) We haven’t been riding a horse for three days.
(?) Has she been going to Malang ?
(?) Have He been riding a horse for three days ?
2. Past Tense (Waktu Lampau)
a. Simple Past Tense (Waktu Lampau Sederhana)
Rumus :
+} S+Be+Was/Were+O/C
-} S+Be+Was/Were+not+O/C
?} Be+Was/Were+ S+O/C
Example :
+} We were at school yesterday
-} We were not at school yesterday
?} were we at school yesterday ?
For I, He, She, It = Was
They, we, you = were
Contoh :
(+) I saw a good film last night
(+) He came here last month
(-) I saw not a good film last night
(-) He came not last month
(?) Saw I a good film last night
(?) Came He here last month
b. Past Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Lampau)
Rumus :
(+): S + was/were + Ving
(-): S + was/were + NOT + Ving
(?): Was/Were + S + Ving
Contoh :
(+) He was watching television all afternoon last week
(+) They were talking about sport when I met him
(-) He wasn’t watching television all afternoon last week
(-) They weren’t talking about sport when I met him
(?) Was He watching television all afternoon last week
(?) Were they talking about sport when I met him
c. Past Perfect Tense (Waktu Sempurna Lampau)
Rumus :
subject+auxiliary verb HAVE+main verb
(+): S + had + V3
(-): S + had + not + V3
(?): Had + S + V3
Contoh :
(+) When my brother arrived , I had painted my motor cycle
(+) The ship had left before I arrived
(-) When my brother arrived , I hadn’t painted my motor cycle
(-) The ship hadn’t left before I arrived
(?) Had I my motor cycle , when my brother arrived ?
(?) Had the ship left before I arrived?
d. Past Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sempurna Lampau)
Rumus :
subject+auxiliary verb HAVE+auxiliary verb BE+main verb
Contoh :
(+) They had been living there for two month
(+) When they washed my drees , your father had been playing badminton
(-) They hadn’t been living there for two month
(-) When they washed my dress , your father hadn’t been playing badminton
(?) Had they been living there for two month?
(?) When they washed my dress , had your father been playing badminton ?
3. Future Tense (Akan Datang)
a. Simple Future Tense (Waktu Akan Datang Sederhana)
Rumus :
subject+auxiliary verb WILL+main verb
Contoh :
(+) I will visit to yogyakarta tomorrow.
(+) he will met girl friend by seven o’clock
(?) Will he go to America next month?
(+) President shall at Nederland the day after tomorrow.
(-) President shall not at Nederland the day after tomorrow.
(?) Shall President at Nederland the day after tomorrow?
b. Future Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Akan Datang)
Rumus :
subject+auxiliary verb WILL+auxiliary verb BE+main verb
Contoh :
(+) I will be writing a comic.
(+) I will be studying tomorrow night.
(-) I will not writing a comic.
(-) I will not be studying tomorrow night.
(?) Will I be writing a comic ?
(?) Will I be studying tomorrow night ?
c. Future Perfect Tense (Waktu Sempurna Akan Datang)
Rumus :
subject+auxiliary verb WILL+auxiliary verb HAVE+main verb
Contoh :
(+) Iwill havefinishedby 10am.
(+) Youwill haveforgottenme by then.
(-) Shewillnothavegoneto school.
(-) Wewillnothaveleft.
(?) Willyou havearrived?
(?) Willthey havereceivedit?
d. Future Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu Berlangsung Sempurna Akan Datang)
Rumus :
subject+auxiliary verb WILL+auxiliary verb HAVE+auxiliary verb BE+main verb
Contoh :
(+) I will have been reading a news paper.
(+) He will have been listening music.
(-) I will haven’t been reading a news paper.
(-) He will haven’t listening a music.
(?) Will I have been riding a news paper ?
(?) Will He have listening a music ?
4. Past Future Tense (Akan Datang Di Waktu Lampau)
a. Past Future Tense (Waktu Akan Datang Di Waktu Lampau)
Rumus :
Positif: S + would + V1
Negatif: S + would + not + V1
Tanya:  Would + S + V1
Contoh :
(+) He would come if you invited him.
(+) They would buy a home the previous day.
(-) He wouldn’t come if invited him.
(-) They wouldn’t buy a home the previous day.
(?) Would He come if invited him ?
(?) Would they buy a home the previous day ?
b. Past Future Continuous Tense (Waktu Akan Sedang Terjadi Diwaktu Lampau)
Rumus :
Positif: S + would + be + Ving
Negatif: S + would + not + be + Ving
Tanya: Would + S + be + Ving
Contoh :
(+) I should be swimming at this time the following day.
(+) I shall be sliping at 10 o’clock tomorrow.
(-) I shouldn’t be swimming at this time the following day.
(-) I shalln’t be sleeping at 10 o’clock tomorrow.
(?) Shall I be swimming at this time the following day ?
(?) Shall I be sleeping at10 o’clock tomorrow ?
c. Past Future Perfect Tense (Waktu Akan Sudah Selesai Di Waktu Lampau)
Rumus :
Positif: S + would + have + V3
Negatif: S + would + not + have + V3
Tanya: Would + S + have + V3
Contoh :
(+) He would have graduated if he had studies hard.
(+) Nonok will have studied moth by the end of this week.
(-) He wouldn’t have gone if he had met his darling
(-) Nonok will have not studied month by the end of this week
(?) Would He have gone if he had met his darling ?
(?) Will Nonok have studied month by the end of this week ?
d. Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense
(Waktu Yang Sudah Sedang Berlangsung Pada Waktu Lampau)
Rumus :
Positif: S + would + have + been + Ving
Negatif: S + would + not + have + been + Ving
Tanya: Would + S + have + been + Ving
Contoh :
Rianawati would have been speaking English for two years
(+) Mrs. Anisa Munif would have been walking here for seventeen years
(+) Rianawati would have been speaking English for two years
(-) Mrs. Anisa Munif wouldn’t have been walking here for seventeen year
(-) Rianawati wouldn’t have been speaking English for two years
(?) Would Mrs. Anisa Munif have been walking here for seventeen years?
(?) Would Rianawati have been speaking English for two years?

Pengertian Active And Passive Voice (Bhs. Inggris X)

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE
Kalimat Aktif dan Kalimat Pasif
Kata kerja transitif mempunyai dua voice (ragam gramatikal), aktif dan pasif.
1) Bentuk aktif adalah orang, binatang, atau benda yang ditunjukkan oleh subjek dikatakan melakukan sesuatu pada yang lain.
Contoh: Karim killed a tiger. Karim membunuh seekor harimau
2) Bentuk pasif adalah orang, binatang atau benda dikatakan menderita sesuatu dari sesuatu yang lain.


Contoh: A tiger was killed by Karim. Seekor harimau dibunuh oleh Karim
Bentuk pasif :
To Be + Past Participle
Aturan-aturan :
a) Kata kerja transitif tidak digunakan dalam bentuk pasif, kecuali kalau kata kerja itu menggunakan cognate object dalam bentuk aktif.
Aktif : She sang a fine song. Ia menyanyikan sebuah nyanyian yang merdu
Pasif : A fine song was sung by her. Sebuah nyanyian yang merdu dinyanyikan olehnya
b) Bilamana kalimat diubah dari bentuk aktif ke pasif, objek untuk kata kerja aktif menjadi subjek untuk kalimat kerja pasif.
objek untuk kata kerja aktif :
Aktif: Linda can make tarts. Linda dapat membuat kue tart
Subjek untuk kata kerja pasif :
Pasif: Tarts can be made by Linda
c) Retained object (objek yang tetap dipakai/dipertahankan dalam pasif)
Dua buah objek dalam kalimat aktif, ketika diubah menjadi kalimat pasif, masih tetap ada sebuah objek dipertahankan, objek ini dinamakan retained object. Objek ini mungkin objek tak langsung dari kata kerja aktif atau objek langsung dari kata kerja aktif.
Objek tak langsung dari kata kerja aktif
Kata Kerja aktif Kata kerja pasif
We gave him a prize A prize was given him by us
Objek langsung dari kata kerja aktif
Kata Kerja aktif Kata kerja pasif
We gave him a prize He was given a prize by us
Berikut contoh-contoh kalimat aktif yang dirubah menjadi kalimat pasif dalam bentuk tenses :
1) Simple present
Aktif
John bites Mary
John doesn’t bite Mary
Does John bite Mary?
What does John do?
Who bites Mary?
Who does John bite?

Pasif
Mary is bitten by John
Mary isn’t bitten by John
Is Mary bitten by John?
what is done by John?
Who is Mary bitten by?
Who is bitten by John?
2) Simple continuous
Aktif
John is biting Mary
John isn’t biting Mary
Is John biting Mary?
What is John doing?

Who is biting Mary?

Who is John biting?



Pasif

Mary is being bitten by John

Mary isn’t being bitten by John

Is Mary being bitten by John?

What is being done by John?

Who is Mary being bitten by?

Who is being bitten by John?

3) Present perfect

Aktif

John has bitten Mary

John hasn’t bitten Mary

Has John bitten Mary?

What has John done?

Who has bitten Mary?

Who has John bitten?



Pasif

Mary has been bitten by John

Mary hasn’t been bitten by John

Has Mary been bitten by John?

What has been done by John?

Who has Mary been bitten by?

Who has been bitten by John?

4) Present perfect continuous

Aktif

John has been biting Mary

John hasn’t been biting Mary

Has John been biting Mary?

What has John been doing?

Who has been biting Mary?

Who has John been biting?



Pasif

Mary has been being bitten by John

Mary hasn’t been being bitten by John

Has Mary been being bitten by John?

What has been being done by John?

Who has Mary been being bitten by?

Who has been being bitten by John?

5) Simple past

Aktif

John bit Mary

John didn’t bite Mary

Did John bite Mary?

What did John do?

Who bit Mary?

Who did John bite?


Pasif

Mary was bitten by John

Mary wasn’t bitten by John

Was Mary bitten by John?

What was done by John?

Who was Mary bitten by?

Who was bitten by John?

6) Past continuous

Aktif

John was biting Mary

John wasn’t biting Mary

Was John biting Mary?

What was John doing?

Who was biting Mary?

Who was John biting?



Pasif

Mary was being bitten by John

Mary wasn’t being bitten by John

Was Mary being bitten by John?

What was being done by John?

Who was Mary being bitten by?

Who was being bitten by John?

7) Past perfect

Aktif

John had bitten Mary

John hadn’t bitten Mary

Had John bitten Mary?

What had John done?

Who had bitten Mary?

Who had John bitten?



Pasif

Mary had been bitten by John

Mary hadn’t been bitten by John

Had Mary been bitten by John?

What had been done by John?

Who had Mary been bitten by?

Who had been bitten by John?

8) Past perfect continuous

Aktif

John had been biting Mary

John hadn’t been biting Mary

Had John been biting Mary?

What had John been doing?

Who had been biting Mary?

Who had John been biting?



Pasif

Mary had been being bitten by John

Mary hadn’t been being bitten by John

Had Mary been being bitten by John?

What had been being done by John?

Who had Mary been being bitten by?

Who had been being bitten by John?

9) Future

Aktif

John will bite Mary

John won’t bite Mary

Will John bite Mary?

What will John do?

Who will bite Mary?

Who will John bite?



Pasif

Mary will be bitten by John

Mary won’t be bitten by John

Will Mary be bitten by John?

What will be done by John?

Who will Mary be bitten by?

Who will be bitten by John?

10) Future continuous

Aktif

John will be biting Mary

John won’t be biting Mary

Will John be biting Mary?

What will John be doing?

Who will be biting Mary?

Who will John be biting?



Pasif

Mary will be being bitten by John

Mary won’t be being bitten by John

Will Mary be being bitten by John?

What will be being done by John?

Who will Mary be being bitten by?

Who will be being bitten by John?

11) Future perfect

Aktif

John will have bitten Mary

John won’t have bitten Mary

Will John have bitten Mary?

What will John have done?

Who will have bitten Mary?

Who will John have bitten?



Pasif

Mary will have been bitten by John

Mary won’t have been bitten by John

Will Mary have been bitten by John?

What will have been done by John?

Who will Mary have been bitten by?

Who will have been bitten by John?

12) Future perfect continuous

Aktif

John will have been biting Mary

John won’t have been biting Mary

Will John have been biting Mary?

What will John have been doing?

Who will have been biting Mary?

Who will John have been biting?



Pasif

Mary will have been being bitten by John

Mary won’t have been being bitten by John

Will Mary have been being bitten by John?

What will have been being done by John?

Who will Mary have been being bitten by?

Who will have been being bitten by John?

Kata-kata kerja transitif kadang-kadang mempunyai arti pasif walaupun bentuk kalimatnya adalah aktif :

a) Dengan komplemen

Sugar tastes sweet (pasif: sugar is sweet when it is tasted). Gula manis rasanya (gula manis bila

dirasakan)

b) Tanpa komplemen

The books is printing (pasif: the book is being printed). Buku itu sedang dicetak

The cows are milking (pasif: the cows are being milked). Sapi-sapi itu sedang diperah

Kesimpulan :

TENSES


ACTIVE


PASSIVE

Simple Present

Present Continuous

Present Perfect

Past Tense

Past Continuous

Simple Future

Be going to

Past perfect

Future perfect


Mary

Mary

Mary

Mary

Mary

Mary

Mary Mary

Mary


Helps

is helping

has helped

helped

was helping

will help

is going to help

had helped

will have helped


John

John

John

John

John

John


is helped

is being helped

has been helped

was helped

was being helped

will be helped

is going to be helped

had been helped

will have been helped

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